SHINGAREV, ANDREI IVANOVICH born August 19 [Old Style], 1869, village Borovoe, Pridachenskii district, Voronezh county, Voronezh province (now within the Voronezh city), Russian Empire
died January 7 [Old Style], 1918, Petrograd (St. Petersburg), Russia.
Andrei Ivanovich Shingarev - zemstvo (local government body), public, political figure and statesman (specialist in state economy and budget on the part of liberal community of Russia), general practitioner, publicist. Sh. came from merchantry. His family was well known in the XVIII - XIX century among Voronezh and Tambov merchantry. Shingarevs' ancestors were "trading quarter people" from the beginning of the XVIIth century.
Father - Ivan Andreevich Shingarev was temporarily registered as a commoner (meschanin) of Lipetsk, Tambov province, afterwards - Voronezh merchant. Mother - Zinaida Nikanorovna (nee Petrulina) - came from merchant family related to a well known XIXth century Voronezh family of the Pridorogins. Andrei had two brothers and three sisters.
Sh. began to study at Voronezh gymnasium but in the middle of the course passed on to Voronezh vocational school (real'noe uchilishe), which he finished in 1886. He got his school-leaving certificate in Elets gymnasium in 1887. Being the pupil of the higher forms Andrei took part in a moderate "narodnik" circle (society). He graduated two faculties of the Moscow State University: the natural sciences department of the physical-mathematical faculty (1891) and medical faculty (1894). He also finished special medical courses at the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna's Clinical institute (1894). Sh. was the course leader at the medical faculty and one of the active "narodnics" of the Voronezh area friendly association (zemlyachestvo) at Moscow University. He was a disciple of the founder of a famous therapeutic school professor A.A. Ostroumov. Andrei Ivanovich turned down two proposals to stay at the university and continue research in the domain of botany and surgery.
From 1892 to 1917 he was subjected (with short intervals) to secret police supervision and from 1915 to February 1917 - to constant secret outdoor surveillance.
"VORONEZH PERIOD" OF ACTIVITY:
In 1895-97 Sh. worked as a free lance doctor in Fomina-Negachevskiy district Zemlyansk county of Voronezh province (villages Bol'shaya and Malaya Vereika, which now are on the territory of Ramon' and Semiluki districts of Voronezh region). From 1898 Sh. worked as a territorial (zemskii) doctor and the head of the inter-district division in Voronezh province, at the junction of Zadonsk, Zemlyansk and Voronezh counties (now the territory of Ramon' district of Voronezh region and Hlevenskiy district of Lipetsk region) (1899-1903). In 1903-06 he was the head of the sanitary department of the Voronezh provincial municipal council (zemskaya uprava). Andrei Ivanovich was aide-de-camp (the closest assistent) and the follower of a famous Russian sanitary inspector N.I. Tezyakov. They organized territorial sanitary service in Voronezh region which included county sanitary councils and presupposed established posts of sanitary inspectors. Sh. managed to prevent the epidemy of cholera in Voronezh region in 1905. He was an active and constant participant of territory doctors' congresses. Along with massive reception of patients Andrei Ivanovich carried out research which helped to elicit the disease incidence among peasants and the child death rate of infectious diseases. He was constantly engaged in pressing questions of sanitary-medical conditions of peasantry: the activity of provincial sanitary organization, the most common diseases - malaria, cholera, syphilis, childhood infectious diseases etc. He also paid great attention to nursery-orphanages and hot school luncheons for peasant children as well as to the status of women in peasant society. Sh. was an activist of socio-sanitary trend in Russian zemstvo [territory] medicine. His book "Dieing out village" (Saratov, 1901; St.-Petersburg, 1907) was a brilliant example of a profound problem research of the rural population's working, living and health conditions. This book contained large classified actual data about Voronezh peasantry's life. The book got all-Russia popularity as a documentary example of the disastrous state in which the majority of central Russia peasants was living. Sh. published a lot of articles dedicated to the problems of medicine, sanitary conditions and socio-economical relations in Voronezh province. Sh. was a permanent author of the regional magazines "Sanitary-doctoral chronicle of Voronezh province" and "Medical discussions" (1898-1905). He was very active in cultural and educational work among peasants, this work varied from writing and distributing brochures on hygiene to organizing Christmas festivities for peasant children. Andrei Ivanovich did a lot to prevent malaria and cholera epidemics in Voronezh region. He was very popular among and respected by common people, colleagues and territory (zemstvo) officials.
A.I. Shingarev took an active part in local governing: he was the councilor of Usman' county assembly (1895-1904) according to his father's property qualification (land-lot about 100 dessiatina at the Grachevka khutor, Usman' county Tambov province) and of Tambov provincial local (zemstvo) assembly as a representative of Usman' county assembly (1895-98, 1901-04). He often acted as the assembly's executive secretary and also as a reports and revision committee member. At this period he often took part in Zemlyansk and Voronezh county assembly sessions as an invitee sanitary-medical specialist with a deliberative vote. Sh. adhered progressive-liberal views, he was not afraid to clash with bureaucrats and local administration and to counteract the unprofessional guardianship of the latter over territory medical establishments. Sh. took part in the kadet electoral campaign to the IVth State Duma as a councillor of Ufimsk county local assembly (1912-15).
Sh. was the member of Voronezh regional committee for meeting the needs of agricultural industry (1902). Sh. made a report about the necessity of reforming local taxations of European Russia's provinces. He suggested delivering the problem of agricultural industry's needs and local taxation to the authority of all-Russia electoral all-estate (all-class) establishments. His was the proposal of tax proceeds' radical redistribution in favour of local territory and provincial budgets. Together with other Voronezh liberals he made an official statement about the impossibility of solving social problems under the autocratic regime's absolute power. It was by pure accident, due to low official position that he escaped government repression during the Home affairs ministry rout (repressions) of the local committee.
A.I. Shingarev actively participated in a number of public organizations such as Voronezh doctors' society, Voronezh department of Russian society for people's health protection, All-Russian society of Russian doctors in memory of N.I. Pirogov and others during the "Voronezh period" of his work. He organized several scientific research medical expeditions on behalf of Pirogov society along some Voronezh region counties. He was one of the founders and till 1908 was one of the activists of the Voronezh People's Universities' society.
Sh. was a vigorous and consistent participant of the liberal zemstvo movement. Being the member of "Liberation Union" (1904-05), he was one of the leaders of its Voronezh group. Together with V.I. Koliubakin, P.Y. Rostovstev, A.G. Hruschov Andrei Ivanovich was a well-known liberal in Voronezh. From 1905 to 1907 Sh. headed the constitutional-democratic party branch in Voronezh and edited (1905-06) the pro-kadets newspaper "Voronezh speech" ("Voronezhskoe slovo"), the editorial office of which became a sort of a club for liberal public and kadets party election headquarters in Voronezh. Sh. participated in revolutionary events of 1905-07 in Voronezh as a well-known speaker and left-liberal publicist. Being the main kadet candidate Sh. organized and took an active part in the election campaign of his party to State Duma I-III in Voronezh and partly in province. Participating in the II congress of the kadet party he took part in the detailed discussion of its agrarian programme. According to the regulations concerning extraordinary guarding (protection, security), Sh. was arrested by local police; the editorial office and his flat had more than once been searched. He was put on trial within the case of Voronezh kadet party committee but was acquitted together with other members of the committee (1908-09). He actively protested against the first State Duma dissolution and was all for the realization of Vyborg Manifesto. In 1907 Sh. became the member of the kadet party's central committee (1907-1917) and afterwards was one of its leading figures. From 1907-1918 he was a contributor of "Speech" ("Rech") newspaper; he also published his socio-economical articles in other popular liberal newspapers and magazines (especially "Russian gazette" - "Russkie vedomosti", "Zemstvo matter" - "Zemskoe delo", "Russian thought" - "Russkaya mysl'", "New Economist" - "Novyi economist", "Law" - "Pravo").
"ST. PETERSBURG PERIOD" OF ACTIVITY:
At the second congress of town voters (06.02.1907) Sh. was elected the II State Duma deputy from Voronezh and joined the Constitutional-democratic faction. He was included into local government and food committees, being the reporter of the latter. He participated in the debates on the military field court abolishment, on agrarian question, on the establishing of the committee for the reading of village and district government law. Andrei Ivanovich energetically promulgated kadet and general-liberal ideas among peasant deputies. Being a "specialist" on local governing and "peasant question" (krest'yznskii vopros) he constantly published articles in periodical press about his personal and kadet faction's work.
On October 20, 1907 Sh. was voted in the III State Duma on behalf of the overall electors body of Voronezh provincial electoral assembly. This time he became kadet faction deputy chairman. In the III State Duma Sh. worked in several committees, such as: budget, finance, food, local government, land reform, for changing the peasantry law, conciliatory committee for the draft of the state revenues and expenditures. He set his hand on the following drafts: "On providing rest for commercial and industrial employees", "On changing the State Duma electoral Regulations", "On the extension of local governing Regulations on the Don Kazak region", "On the introduction of local governing (zemstvo) into Siberia", "On introduction of local governing in Arhangelsk province", "On changing the town electoral law", "On the death penalty abolition" etc. Sh. was Stolypin's agrarian reform opponent and on behalf of the kadet faction declared their decision to vote against the November 9, 1906 decree (ukaz). He was one of the best public speakers in kadet faction. More than 300 times Sh. took the floor at Duma sessions, mostly on budget questions, being the regular opponent of Finance minister V.N. Kokovtsov, but also on the questions of agrarian policy, local governing, public health and education. Andrei Ivanovich became famous for his nimble criticism of the tsarist government's internal economic policy. From 1909 Sh. was a bureau councilor of the State Duma joint committee. He was P.N. Miliukov's aide-de-camp not only in the Duma faction, but in the party in general. Sh. belonged to Russian political masonry ("The Polar Star" lodge in St Petersburg, initiated in 1908, the so called "Duma Lodge").
On October 10, 1912, at the congress of second curia town voters of St.-Petersburg Sh. was elected the State Duma IV deputy. He again became kadet party deputy chairman and represented his faction in the State Duma Sanhedrim. This time he worked in the following committees: budget, local governing, finance, naval science, on the State Duma III legislative continuity, on Romanov Tercentenary celebration. 113 times he took floor at the Duma general meetings, primarily on budget questions. From August 1915 to 1917 he was military-naval committee chairman and concentrated on military supply maintenance. Sh. was the committee's reporter on the state list draft, budget, finance, military and naval science. He was Progressive Bloc member - from august 1915 its bureau kadet faction member - and became the "joint opposition" active organizer. He constantly opposed the increasing impairment of the State Duma budget right under the conditions of Great War. In August 1915 the State Duma voted Andrei Ivanovich into the Special Council for State Defense, where he kept government representatives in suspense because he fastened the blame for military defeat, heavy casualties in Russian Army, poor munitioning exceptionally upon the government. In spring 1916 on the Russian Parliamentary delegation he visited co-belligerent countries (the Entente) and gave detailed accounts of these visits at the State Duma committee's sessions and in a series of articles in liberal press. Sh. became a member of Petrograd city committee for collection and distribution on war-time needs and deputy chairman of the Sate Duma committee for rendering of assistance to wounded in the war and its victims. In 1915-16 he was the Petrograd city and region committee of All-Russia City Union (RCU) member, then was elected Petrograd regional committee of RCU deputy-chairman, the head of its economical department. He was in commission for the sanitary detachment of the RCU Petrograd city committee, economic department chairman of the leading echelons formation Division. Sh. was the Petrograd city munitioning committee. He also was the council member of the General Board for munitioning of the All-Russia zemstvo and city unions (Zemgor). He presided at several zemstvo and city activists' meetings on Petrograd economic region supply.
From 1912 to 1917 Sh. was the St. Petersburg (later Petrograd) city Duma public (glasnyi) and its kadet faction leader - an active member of deputy group "Renovation". There appeared the city executive committee for canalization and water supply reconstruction in Petrograd and Andrei Ivanovich became its active member. In 1917 he began his uncompromising controversy with Bolsheviks which continued in the city duma as well as in province. He protested against impetuous cheap politics against the background of municipal services collapse. Sh. supported the city duma and the mayor (G.I. Shreider) in their struggle against bolsheviks up to duma's dissolution. Bolsheviks in return slung mud at Sh. in their press and called him "people's enemy".
Sh. supported the "palace revolution" idea for the purpose of Nicholas II dethronement and his substitution for a more "compliant" royal house of Romanovs member.
Andrei Ivanovich took an active part in the February revolution 1917. On February 28, 1917 he headed the Food committee which was organized of the State Duma Provisional committee and the Petrograd Soviet members in order to prevent famine in Petrograd and at the North front. P.I. Miliukov insisted that Sh. held an appointment of Agriculture minister at the 1st convocation Provisional Government. As there was no yet the Food ministry in the country he was compelled to undertake the food supply conduct. According to the kadet agrarian programme he established land and food committees as well as the Chief land committee for working out the land reform outline for its future consideration by the Constituent Assembly (CA). On March 25, 1917 Sh. passed the bread monopoly law. The practical work of the Agricultural ministry headed by Sh. included the cabinet and Royal Demesne confiscation and what was more important - the detailed preparation for the future all-Russia land reform and practical realization of the bread monopoly. Andrei Ivanovich worked up the Provisional Government declaration dated 19.3.1917 which forbade the pomeshik lands' capture and stated that land question could have been solved by the CA only. He was against the conveyance of private lands to the land committees and the Petrograd Soviet interference into the Provisional Government management functioning. From May 5 to July 2, 1917 Sh. was the Finance minister and the kadet group leader in the Provisional Government of 2nd convocation (the first coalition government). He energetically propagated the "Freedom Loan". On June 12, 1917 Sh. initiated rather harsh tax laws, which were not a success because there was practically no possibility to collect taxes in a newly born "free state" but which aroused a business class' negative reaction on the one hand and was considered as "week" by "people masses". On July 7, 1917 Sh. declared his withdrawal from the Provisional Government in protest against the draft agreement with the Ukrainian Central Rada.
Sh took part in several professional conferences as the Provisional Government minister and as a guest of honour. In June 1917 he took part in the 1st All-Russia Conference of workers and soldiers deputies' soviets. He also took part in the State Congress in Moscow and in the Conference of public figures where he was voted into the Council of public figures. Together with other kadet leaders he was all for strict order establishment up to military dictatorship. Sh. was the Pre-Parliament (Provisional Council of Russian Republic) kadet faction member (defense committee deputy chairman). Andrei Ivanovich took an active part in the pre-election campaign to the CA on behalf of the kadet party which nominated him in 5 election divisions (Petrograd-capital, Voronezh, Har'kov, Pskov, Saratov); he was preliminary announced as a candidate in 17 election divisions. According to preliminary head count Sh. was elected in Voronezh and Har'kov divisions (where he headed the kadet candidate lists); according to specified final data he was not elected the CA member (blackballed by social-revolutionary-spirited peasants).
On November 28, 1917 - the day of the Constituent Assembly supposed opening - Sh. was arrested according to the Petrograd Provisional Revolutionary Committee decree as one of the oppositional party leaders (and a supposed Constituent Assembly deputy) and imprisoned in the Peter and Pauls' fortress Trubetskoy bastion. On account of health decline Andrei Ivanovich and another prisoner - F.F. Kokoshkin were transported to Mariinskaya city hospital where they were monstrously murdered by red-guard soldiers and sailors summoned to Petrograd for the CA crackdown on January 7, 1918. The murderers were told to be "anarhists" and Bolsheviks started the investigation. Some murderers of red-guard soldiers (including the main instigators) were arrested, sailors-murderers - found but were not handed out by their ships crew. The state trial didn't take place, the arrested criminals were liberated in approximately 3 months. Sh. and Kokoshkin tragic death got a broad public resonance through the whole country. Several thousand people took part in the funeral at Alexandro-Nevskaya Lavra cemetery (Petrograd). There were organized the memorial Committee in commemoration of Sh. and Kokoshkin and the relief fund for their families (stopped to exist the same 1918). Fundraising was also organized in Voronezh to help Shingarev's family. The fund named after Sh. was set up for the needs of people's education at the society for the Voronezh University establishing and development.
PARTY ACTIVITY (PARTY POLITICAL OFFICES):
Sh. was a notable figure in the kadet party (the party of People's Liberty). From 1907 to 1918 he was the party's central committee member and from July 1917 - the central committee secretary. Sh. organized and maintained an energetic activity of party press bureau and agitation-lecturing group in province. Sh. was well known as party publicist (under the "A.Sh." pseudonym), kadet agrarian and finance-economical programme agitator, regular reporter at party conferences and congresses. He was several party committees' and the kadet Duma faction member.
PUBLIC AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY:
Sh. taught at male and female feldsher's schools in Voronezh, at the Polytechnic Institute (factory law and factory hygiene), at M.V. Pobedinskiy higher commercial courses (public medicine and sanitation), at the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna's Clinical institute in St. Petersburg. He was very popular as a lecturer on public-sanitary, finance-economical and socio-political questions having travelled with lectures through all European Russia and the Urals region. Sh. participated in several public organizations' activity, especially in All-Russian society of Russian doctors in memory of N.I. Pirogov (1895-1917) and Free economic society (1908-1915). He was a marked member of such societies as: Siberian studies and its living conditions improvement (1908-1917), Slavic mutual aid committee, Union Jack society and others. He was very efficient at the Commission of spread of sanitary and hygienic learning among people, took part in the organization of international hygienic exhibition in Dresden (1911) and all-Russian in St. Petersburg (1913). Sh. took part in several Pirogov society congresses (1896-1917), The 1st All-Russian women congress (1908), The 1st antialcoholism congress (1910), he presided at the 1st City medical congress in Petrograd (1916) and some others.
For many years Sh. studied N.I. Pirogov's life and activity and wrote several articles about him including his large biography.
He wrote more than a 100 brochures and magazine articles on medical, sanitary, economic, socio-political questions, apart from many newspaper articles and stories.
brother Mikhail (? - committed suicide in 1891) - Mountain Institute student, brother Nikolai - veterinarian, zootechnitian, sister Alexandra (? - 1936) - doctor, microbiologist, sister Anna (? - 1937) - nurse, took part in Russian-Japanese war and World War I, sister Sofia. Wife - nee Kulazhko Efrosin'ya Maximovna - secondary school teacher (? - September 1917). Children: Vladimir (1895-1942) - graduated from Petrograd artillery school, field force artillery officer during WW I, in 1918 was arrested by bolsheviks, from 1925 - in Paris - an emigrant student movement activist, psychologist, psychotheraputist; Georgiy (1899-1919, Prague); Nataliya (1901-1972) in marriage Shingareva-Orlova - doctor-surgeon; Margarita (1903-1942) - artist; Elena (1906-2003).
Memorial plates in honour of Andrei Ivanovich Shingarev are fixed in Voronezh (the former specialized school building - Studencheskay st., 36) (2005) and Usman', Lipetsk region (the former municipal council building) (2004).
Shingarev's published works:
Вымирающая деревня: Опыт санитарно-экономического исследования двух селений Воронежского уезда. Саратов, 1901 (СПб., 1907);
Заболеваемость населения Воронежской губ. 1898-1902 гг. Воронеж, 1906. Т. 1-2;
Как предполагала наделить крестьян землей партия Народной свободы во 2-й Государственной думе. СПб., 1907 (М., 1917);
Вопросы государственного хозяйства и бюджета в III Думе // Русская мысль. 1908. №№ 8-10;
Жизнь и деятельность Н.И. Пирогова // Николай Иванович Пирогов и его наследие: Пироговские съезды. СПб., 1911;
Об улучшении финансов местных органов самоуправления // Известия общества финансовых реформ. № 4. СПб., 1911;
Волостное земство по проекту Гос. Думы // Земское дело. 1911. №№ 15/16, 17;
Об улучшении земских финансов // Земское дело. 1911. №№ 5-6;
Законодательная инициатива членов Государственной Думы и Государственного Совета // Русская мысль. 1912. №№ 9-10;
Государственная роспись 1912 года в Государственной Думе // Ежегодник газеты "Речь" на 1912 год. СПб., ;
Будущий русско-германский торговый договор. СПб., 1914;
Земская и городская Россия: прошлое и будущее. М., 1915;
Мелкая земская единица или волостное земство. М., 1917;
Политические заметки // Русские ведомости. 1917. август - ноябрь;
Финансы России во время войны. Пг., 1917;
Как это было. Дневник А.И. Шингарева. М., 1918 и др.
Политические деятели России 1917. Биографический словарь. М., 1993;
Политические партии России. Энциклопедия. М., 1996;
Серков А.И. Русское масонство. 1731-2000: Энциклопедический словарь. М., 2001;
Государственная Дума Российской империи. Энциклопедия. М., 2008;
А.И. Шингарев // Рус. ведомости. 1863-1913: Сб. статей. М, 1913;
Воронежский телеграф. 1918. 18 янв. [№ газ. почти полностью посвящен Ш.];
Хрущов А.Г. Андрей Иванович Шингарев: его жизнь и деятельность. М., 1918;
Ольденбург С.Ф. А.И. Шингарев // Вестник Европы. 1918. Кн. 1/4;
Два народолюбца. А.И. Шингарев и Ф.Ф. Кокошкин, М., 1918; Рафес М.Г. А.И. Шингарев как земский врач // Русский врач. 1918. № 1/4;
Набоков В. Временное правительство. М., 1924;
Винавер М.М. Недавнее. (Воспоминания и характеристики). Париж, 1926;
Милюков П.Н. Андрей Иванович Шингарев // Памяти погибших. Париж, 1929;
Бонч-Бруевич В.Д. Об убийстве Кокошкина и Шингарева // Каторга и ссылка. 1934. Кн. 1, 2;
Оболенский В.А. Моя жизнь. Мои современники. Париж, 1988;
Долгоруков П.Д. Великая разруха. М., 2007;
Искра Л.М., Карпачев М.Д. Либерал А.И. Шингарев и его «Вымирающая деревня» // Общественное движение в Черноземном Центре России в XVII – нач. ХХ вв. Воронеж, 1990;
Тюков Н.А. Андрей Иванович Шингарев // Вопросы истории. 1995. № 5/6;
Куприянов В.В. Из прошлого земской медицины: Судьба земского врача А.И. Шингарева. М., 1996;
Тыркова-Вильямс А.В. Воспоминания. То, чего больше не будет. М., 1998;
Макаров В.В. Трудный путь к «политической благонадежности» // Исторические записки. Воронеж, 2002. Вып. 8;
Карпачев М.Д. А.И. Шингарев // Российский либерализм: идеи и люди. М., 2004;
Архипов И.Л. А.И. Шингарев – «обходительный либерал» // Звезда. 2007. № 9;
мат-лы интернет-страницы http:\\ibyu.narod.ru.
Gosudarstvennyi Archiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii. Ф. 130. Оп. 2. Д. 150;
Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Istoricheskii Archiv. Ф. 1090 (A.I. Shingarev); Ф. 1278. Оп. 1. Д. 497; Д. 558. Л. 7; Оп. 9. Д. 897, 898; Ф. 1375;
Department of manuscripts NLR. Ф. 266 (Druzhinin N.P.). № 174, 587, 668;
Gosudarstvennyi Archiv Voronezhskoi Oblasti. Ф. И-1. Оп. 1. Д. 42; Ф. И-6. Оп. 1. Д. 1063; Оп. 2. Д. 103.